A flat slab is a one-way or two-way slab system that usually does not have beams or girders in which load is transferred directly to the supporting concrete columns and load-bearing walls also known as drop panels.
The drop panel acts as a T-beam on the support.
They improve shear capacity and stiffness of the floor system below vertical loads, resulting in economic duration.
Introduction to Flat Slab:
Flat slabs are also known as beamless slabs, it is type of slab in which the floor slab is supported directly on columns without the action of beams or girders.
Thin flat slabs ranging from 5 to 9 m are the preferred solution for building in-situ concrete frame buildings.
Flat slabs are typically used on parking decks, commercial buildings, hotels or places where beam projections are not desired.
Types Of flat slab:
Typical flat slab:
This slab is also called beam slab construction, so beams are sometimes avoided in warehouses, offices, public halls and slabs are supported directly by columns.
These types of constructions are also aesthetically appealing.
These slabs which are supported by straight columns are called flat slabs.
Flat Slab without drop and with column head:
The column head is sometimes widened to reduce perforation shear in the slab.
The widest parts are called column heads.
The column heads can be provided with any angle from an architectural point of view but for design the concrete in the portion at 45° on either side of vertical only is considered as effective for the design.
Flat slab with drop panel and without column head:
The moments in the slab are higher near the column, so the slab is thickened near the column by providing drops.
Sometimes the drops are called the capital of the pillar.
Advantages of Flat Slab:
- This reduces the overall height of the structure.
- Flat slabs are capable of lifting concentrated loads.
- They require less formwork.
- Since the reinforcement of flat slabs can be easily expanded, it is easy to place.
- They also have better quality control.
- Sprinklers, utilities and other piping are easy to install due to the absence of beams.
- This gives better appearance and better diffusion of light.
- Better fire resistant than other floor systems.
- They can be constructed rapidly.
Disadvantages of Flat Slab:
- In the flat plate system, construction of large spans is not possible.
- The use of a drop panel can interfere with large mechanical ducting.
- They are not suitable for masonry walls (brittle supports).
- The thickness of the flat plate slab is greater than that of the typical RCC two-way slab.
Uses of Flab Slab:
- Flat slabs are mostly used in large industrial structures, parking garages, ramps, warehouses, tall buildings and hotels.
- They are used where the beam is not required.
- They are also used where the structures requires less formwork.
- Also provide better diffusion of light to the plain roof surface.