There are various types of concrete blocks used in the construction of the structures such as houses, buildings, etc. that are manufactured in any required shape and size.
The distinctive dimensions of concrete blocks are 39 cm x 19 cm x 30 cm or 20 cm or 10 cm or 2 inches, 4 inches, 6 inches, 8 inch, 10 inches and 12 inches.
Concrete blocks are prepared from cement, aggregate, water; the cement-aggregate ratio in concrete blocks is 1: 6 (60% high-quality aggregate and 40% coarse aggregate)
Their minimum strength is about 3N / mm2. ASTM C- 90-91 specifies the compressive strength requirements of concrete masonry units.
Types of concrete block or concrete masonry units:
|Hollow Concrete Block||400 x 200 x 100/150/200 mm|
|Concrete Brick||230 x 110 x 70 mm|
|Solid concrete block||8 x 8 x 16 inch|
|Paving Block||200 x 100 x 60 mm|
|Light aerated concrete block||600 x 200 x 100 mm|
|Cellular lightweight concrete block||24 x 8 x 4 inch|
|Fly ash block||230 x 110 x 70 mm|
1.Hollow concrete blocks:
These blocks are manufactured using lightweight aggregates with a fixed design load that depends on the nature of the member.
Typically, concrete blocks include voids of ¼ its gross area and the strong space should not be lower than half of its space to attain its maximum allowable load capacity.
The voids are often filled with mortar of light-weight aggregate materials.
There are two types of concrete hollow blocks such as load-bearing and non-load bearing concrete hollow blocks.
These blocks are commonly used in the construction industry available in sizes i.e. 100x200x400 mm, 200x200x400 mm, 150x200x400 mm, etc.
Types of hollow concrete block:
A) Concrete stretcher block:
They are concrete blocks used to assemble masonry units.
In relation to its look, concrete stretcher blocks are comparatively similar to a normal hollow block, however, their faces are parallel with respect to the wall face.
B) Concrete corner block:
This corner block is used at the ends of masonry, these may be window or door openings.
They are arranged in such a way that the end of their plane appears outward and the other end is closed with a stretcher block.
C) Concrete column block:
Column blocks are often referred to as double corner blocks where two ends of the corner are visible.
D) Jamb concrete block:
Jamb blocks are used in the opening of a large window, attached to a stretcher and corner block.
For the provision of double-hung windows, jamb blocks are very helpful to provide space for external members of the window.
E) Split concrete block:
Split concrete block types are commonly used to assemble partition walls.
The width of partition blocks is larger than its width.
The hollow parts are divided into 2-3 elements.
F) Frog brick concrete block:
Frog brick blocks have a frog-like head with headers and stretchers.
This helps in applying mortar to the frog blocks and developing a strong bond with the top laying blocks.
Bullnose bricks are like corner blocks, their duties are similar when we are most in need of round bricks within the corner.
G) Lintel blocks:
These concrete block types are used within the preparation of lintel beams.
These lintel blocks are built in such a manner that it serves as a masonry unit and formwork.
Aesthetically, lintel blocks have a deep groove where concrete and reinforcing bars are positioned, they serve as an everlasting formwork system for the lintel beam member.
They are found to be environment friendly and helpful to most builders because they served several purposes.
H) Aerated Autoclaved Concrete Block (AAC):
Aerated autoclaved concrete block types are a lighter and bigger bricks.
Most are made with identical materials like bricks, however with a unique structure with reduced prices.
Research shows that the use of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks has lowered general steel and concrete consumption by 15% and 10%.
Autoclaved aerated blocks have various advantages such as cost-benefit, less construction time, remodeling various surfaces & fire resistance.
Before formation of AAC block, a technology statement must be submitted for approval before the work can begin.
Concrete bricks often form small rectangular blocks systematically blocked to form rigid walls.
Some manufacturers use concrete, while others play with its cement and aggregates for financial purposes.
Different manufacturers also made bricks with totally different colours according to the request of some customers.
Concrete bricks are generally used in fences, facades because it offers a good aesthetic and modern look.
3.Solid concrete blocks:
These concrete block types are dense and bigger than concrete bricks, they are constructed to make sturdy, heavy, and naturally dense aggregates.
These blocks are sufficiently large, so it can be used for large masonry units that are load-bearing in nature.
Solid concrete blocks are just like concrete bricks, however, they are costly and heavy and might withstand larger forces than bricks.
Paving blocks are often a rectangular or square box made of reinforced concrete.
Since these blocks are used in paving and highway shoulders, they need to be painted with high-visibility strong paint so that motorists and drivers can see it quickly.
Also, these blocks should be inflexible and firm to achieve any automobile collision.
Paving blocks are also used in parks, walkways and sometimes parking areas.
The normal dimension of these blocks is 60 mm.
5.Light aerated concrete block:
These concrete block types are constructed from concrete (i.e. Portland cement, aggregates, for high-density blocks sometimes sand and high-quality gravel is used).
They are produced using the autoclaved aerated concrete.
6.Cellular lightweight concrete block:
These blocks are light-weight construction material that combines good mechanical strength with low thermal conductivity.
It is a low-density Portland cement with a large variety of small air bubbles.
7.Fly ash blocks:
They are made of waste materials that come from combustion of coal in thermal power plants.
Also read: Cinder Block and Concrete Block & Types of Concrete