There are different types of walls used in building construction.
The wall is a structural component that divides the space (room) into two places (rooms) and also offers safety and shelter.
Sometimes, walls are differentiated into two types of exterior walls and interior walls.
The outer walls gives the home an enclosure for shelter and the inside walls assist to divide the enclosure into the required rooms.
Interior partitions are also called partition walls or interior walls and exterior walls are external walls.
In the technical perspective the walls are divided into the following types:
Different Types of Walls:
Load Bearing Wall:
As the name suggests, the construction of the entire building rests on the walls instead of the pillars.
Generally, the load from the slab is transferred onto the beam, spreading from the beam to the column and then to the foundation.
In simple terms, whether its external or internal walls, the wall that carries the entire weight of the structure including the self-weight of the structural elements, is called a load bearing wall.
Strip foundations are adopted for the load-bearing type wall.
Non-load Bearing wall or Drop Wall:
This type of wall doesn’t assist loads of the ground or ceiling above them, which implies it does not bear any weight of the construction.
The most effective example is the partition walls inside the building, where they are constructed solely to divide rooms and these walls should not with their structural integrity.
The non-load bearing wall might be eliminated or shortened without affecting the structure of the building.
Non-load bearing walls are also called drop walls or filling walls.
The thickness of a non-load bearing wall is usually between 100 mm to 125 mm.
A shear wall is a wall that is built around a lift pit, water pump or ladder to retain soil.
There are two pressures on any shear wall, either it can be air pressure, soil pressure or water pressure.
The shear wall is adapted to resist lateral forces exerted on the structure due to wind, earthquake or any other lateral load.
To explain, let us take an example of overhead water tank.
The overhead tank is exposed to air because it is built at heights that includes the wind pressure over it.
The water tank contains water which creates water pressure inside the tank. The shear wall resists these forces without any deflection.
The wall that is constructed to maintain an uneven level of the floor on two of its faces known as a retaining wall.
The wall that is built around the plot below the floor to retain soil at one end and land sliding after the earthwork on site are known as retaining wall.
Retaining walls might be made RCC or CRS.
Retaining walls are further divided into the following types:
- Gravity retaining wall.
- Reinforced Concrete retaining wall.
- Brick masonry retaining wall.
- Anchored earth walls.
- Stone made Retaining wall.
Brick masonry wall:
The wall that is built with the help of bricks is called a brick masonry wall.
Masonry is used to join bricks to the wall, the thickness of the brick wall can be 20 cm or 10 cm.
- The 20 cm wall is adopted for exterior walls.
- The 10 cm wall is adopted for interior walls.
Remember, the length of a brick wall in a single section should not exceed 4 meters, if it exceeds, a column must be constructed with RCC.
Course Rubble Stone masonry wall:
The wall, which is regularly constructed with the shape of stones, which are well finished & dressed is called the course rabble stone masonry wall.
This type of wall is usually adopted for the abutments of bridges, composite walls or boundary walls.
Random rubble stone masonry wall:
The wall that is constructed with irregular shapes of stones is called a random rubble wall.
This type of wall has more masonry than the courted debris stone wall.
The core wall has been constructed from the foundation and has grown to the height of the building.
In this type of wall, the wall itself acts as a column, the core wall is constructed to hold the lateral force exerted on the structure due to wind, earthquake or another lateral load.
Core walls are a combination of shear walls, they organized and arranged like a core and installed on the geometric center of the building to minimize the torsional effect.
As the name itself proves it is a finished wall, where this wall is cast into the factory and bought on site to be installed.
This type of wall is preferred, where space for working is limited and where labor is less likely.
The most effective part of precast walls is companies providing skilled labor to install walls in your site.
The wall that is built on the top floor of the building to prevent something from falling off the roof.
The height of the parapet wall is 3 feet.
The wall that is constructed with a glass, aluminum or steel frame is called the Curtain Wall.
Walls of this type are commonly adopted in offices, hospitals, and other public buildings.
Boundary Wall or Compound walls:
The wall that is constructed across the building to indicate the boundary of the plot is known as boundary wall.
The type of walls depends on the construction type, availability of material, soil conditions, skilled labour & much more.