Shotcrete

shotcrete

Shotcrete, gunite, or sprayed concrete is concrete or mortar that is conveyed through a hose and is pneumatically projected at high velocity on the surface. Shotcrete is a mixture of cement, aggregates, and water …

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Waterproofing Membrane

waterproofing membrane

A waterproofing membrane is a thin layer of waterproofing layer that is placed on the surface, it is a continuous layer that does not allow water to pass through it. For example: On a …

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Open Channel Flow

Open Channel Flow

Open channel flow means a flow-through channel that is open to the atmosphere and has a free surface, the flow is produced because of gravity that is obtained by providing a bed slope, and …

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Wall Cladding

wall cladding

Wall cladding is the process of laying a material on top of another material that will form a skin layer on the walls, their function to protect the underlying structure and provide an aesthetic …

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Superplasticizer

superplasticizer

Superplasticizers (SPs) are also known as high- range water reducers that are additive used in making high strength concrete. Plasticizers are chemical compounds that enable the production of concrete with approximately 15% less water …

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