Soil Cement

Soil cement is a construction material, generally mixture of crushed pure clay with portland cement and a small amount of water, which is usually deposited in extreme densities.

Hydration of cement particles produces hard, semi-rigid durable materials.

It has good compressive and shear strength; however, it is brittle and has low tensile strength, so it is responsible for cracks.

Soil cement is often used as a building material for the beds of the pipes, slope protection and road construction to strengthen and protect the sub-base layer.

Why soil cement is used:

With or without old bituminous mats, granular-base pavements can be salvaged, strengthened and rebuilt as soil-cement pavements.


It is an environmentally friendly, economical way to rebuild pavements; since about 90 per cent of the material used is already in place, there is a need to deal with it and minimize costs.

Manufacturing procedure:

Before the construction begins, simple laboratory tests predict the use of cement materials, condensation and water required materials.

During construction, tests are done to see that the requirements are being encountered. Testing ensures that the combination can have the strength and long-term durability.

This cement can be mixed in one place or a central mixing plant; central mixing plants may be used where borrowed materials are related.

Soil Cement Road:

This Cement is a very compact combination of soil/aggregate, portland cement and water, it is different from Portland cement concrete pavement in various respects.

An important difference is how aggregates or soil particles are held together.

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Performance of Soil Cement:

The thickness of the soil-cement is less than that required for granular bases that carry visitors to the same site at the same subgrade.


As a result, clay-cement is a cemented, inflexible material that distributes loads over wide areas.

Its slab-like characteristics and beam strength are unmatched by granular bases.

Hard, inflexible clay-cement resists cyclic freezing, rain and spring-melting losses; this cement stabilizes the soil in two ways.

First, it reduces the plasticity of the soil, especially for soils through which there are excessive amounts of clay particles.

Types of soil cement:

Cement-Modified soils (CMS): It contains all the proportions of Portland cement.

The resultant clay or slightly rigid material like clay, but with better mechanical susceptible volume changes. Low plasticity bearing ratio and shearing strength increases.

Soil-cement basis (SCB): It has a higher ratio of cement than the CMS.

It is commonly used as an inexpensive pavement for materials dealing with roads, roads, parking lots, airports and areas.

Cement-treated base (CTB): It consists of a mixture of granular soil aggregates or combination materials with Portland cement and water.

Acrylic copolymer (Rhino snot): In desert conditions and commercially trademarked “Rhino snot” for the US Army is a water-soluble acrylic copolymer applied to soil or sand that penetrates and touches the floor.

Advantages of soil cement:

Hardness Soil:

Cement is the basis for a low-cost pavement, hardness, most needed for long-lasting parking and storage areas.

Larger paved areas should preserve their original grade and do not develop depressions or pits if they drain freely during rain.

Super strength:

Coty taken from mud-cement pavements is proof of its strength.

Higher-strength samples taken after 5 to 20 years, when the pavement construction was started.

Because cement in clay-cement remains hydrated for some years, clay-cement has “reserve” strength and it is strong and growing.

Superior performance:

Over 70 years of collective experience have demonstrated that completely different types of soil-cement mixtures can be tailor-made for specific pavements in objectives, all achieving better efficiency due to the strength of clay-cement.

Thousands of miles of clay-cement pavements in each state within the United States and all of the provinces of Canada are still providing good service at low maintenance prices.

Disadvantages of soil-cement:

1. The standard needs to be strictly followed if not may do not work correctly.

2. Water is still capable of penetrating if capillary void on a very large scale.

3. If the percentage of cement is too high, it is going to create a crack. Due to low ductility (very brittle), usually, the optimal percentage of cement will be 7% less than the dry soil load.

4. It is not suitable for any type of soil.

5. Homogeneous mixing is strictly involved, so an efficient observer or high-quality instrument is required to process this process.

6. If soil moisture is more than 10%, it cannot work.

Also, read 1. Ferrocement 2. Types of Cement 3. Waterproofing

Frequently Asked Questions:

What is soil cement used for?

It is used as a construction material for the pipe bedding, slope protection and road construction as the subbase layer reinforcing and protecting the subgrade.

How do you calculate soil cement?

Multiply the soil layer length x width x depth to get the volume, then multiply the soil weight with the density of the loose soil to stabilize it.
The weight of cement is calculated by taking 10% of the weight of the soil.

How strong is soil cement?

This is strong, durable, frost resistant layer for the pavement structure.

What is cement soil stabilization?

The addition of the cement to a soil, which acts as the binding agent and produces a weak form of concrete called soil cement.


The use of Soil Cement has great benefit to both vendors and workers of commercial facilities, its cost is well-suited with the granular-base pavement.

The major engineering advantages of soils cement are strength, rigidity, improved volume stability, and increased durability.


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