There are several types of pavement in the road construction based on the design criteria.
The pavement is the higher a part of the structure of a road, airport or parking area comprises all structural components or layers including the shoulder.
It reduces and distributes traffic loading so that it does not harm the subgrade and gives vehicle access between the two factors under all climates.
It provides a safe, smooth and comfortable journey to street users directly and excessive wear & tear.
Different types of pavement in Civil Engineering:
A) Flexible Pavement:
Flexible pavements are constructed to maintain intimate contact with intersections and distribute the load to the subgrade which relies on the whole interlock, particle friction, and cohesion for stability.
The flexible pavement will transfer the wheel load to the underneath layers by grain-to-grain switches by points of contact inside the granular structure.
Types of Flexible Pavement:
1.Conventional layered flexible pavement:
These conventional layered flexible pavements are systems coated with high-quality expensive materials, where pressure is extreme and low-quality materials are positioned within the decrease layers.
2.Full Depth Asphalt Pavement:
Full-depth asphalt pavements are constructed by laying bituminous layers directly on a sub-grade of soil, it is extra appropriate when there may be excessive traffic and native materials are not obtainable.
3.Contained rock asphalt mat (CRAM):
These contained rock asphalt mat are constructed by putting dense aggregate layers between the 2 asphalt layers.
Modified dense graded asphalt concrete is positioned above the sub-layer which will reduce the vertical compressive pressure on the sub-grade of the soil and protect it from surface water.
B) Rigid Pavement:
These rigit pavement have a sufficient flexural strength to transfer the wheel load over a large area.
These types of pavement are positioned both straight on a prepared subgrade and on a layer of granular or steady materials, in comparison with flexible pavements.
Since there is only one layer of material between concrete and sub-grade, this layer may be known as a base or sub-base course.
Due to its relative stiffness, the pavement structure distributes the load over a large area with just one, or two structural layers.
There are different varieties of surfaces; i.e. reinforced continuously reinforced and so on.
Types of Rigid Pavement:
Rigid pavements are further classified as follows:
1. Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP).
2. Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP).
3. Continuous reinforced concrete pavement (CROP).
4. Pre-stressed concrete pavement (PCP).
Difference between rigid and flexible pavement:
|Flexible Pavement||Rigid Pavement|
|Flexible pavement consists of a series of layers with the highest quality material on or near the pavement surface.||Rigid pavement consists of a single-layer Portland cement concrete slab or a relatively high flexural strength.|
|These types of pavement show the deformations of the subgrade and successive layers on the surface.||It is able to bridge over localized failures and substantial assistance.|
|Its position depends on aggregate interlock, particle friction, and cohesion.||Their structural strength is offered by the pavement slab by its beam motion.|
|This types of pavement is greatly influenced by subgrade strength.||Flexible strength of concrete is a significant factor for design.|
|It functions in a manner of load distribution through component layers.||This types of pavement distribute loads over a large space of the subgrade due to its excessive modulus of stiffness and elasticity.|
|A change in temperature due to changes in atmospheric conditions does not produce pressure in flexible pavements.||Temperature modifications induce heavy stresses in rigid pavements.|
|The flexible pavement has self-healing properties due to the heavy wheel load are recoverable due to some extent.||Any excessive deformation caused by heavy wheel load is not fixed, i.e. the settlements are permanent.|
Factors responsible for Various types of pavement:
The following factors are responsible for the pavement design as follows:
- Climate: Precipitation, temperature, frost action.
- Environment: Embankment, foundation cutting.
- Pavement materials: They have to resist climatic conditions, durability, and maintenance.
- Subgrade soil: It determines the thickness of the pavement.
- Traffic: Repetition, speed, wheel load, contact pressure, traffic volume, number of vehicles/day.
Also read: Types of Roads, Types of Curves & Types of Bridges
There are basically two types of pavement rigid and flexible, the rigid pavement is basically a surface or concrete running along a layer of asphalt & flexible pavement is asphalt or bitumen is macadam (bitmac).
Sometimes when lean concrete is used in an asphalt or bitmac base a semi-rigid pavement can make the concrete extra strong.