Caisson Disease


Caisson Disease means when workers have to work under compressed air in the caisson, working under compressed air pressures less than 0.35 to 0.4 N / mm2 with no loss.

Those working beyond the 0.4 N/ mm2 range may suffer from health problems such as pains, breaking of eardrums, swollen noses or tearing of blood vessels in ears.

During decompression, if the workers suffer badly, this effect is called caisson disease.


Joint pain is caused by bends or paralysis or a heart attack which is a serious effect of caisson disease.

Effects of Caisson Disease:

  • An excess of nitrogen may occur with oxygen under a compressed air.
  • During decompression, insoluble nitrogen is absorbed into the blood and tissues, which can cause discomfort.
  • This absorbed nitrogen gas is pumped out to the blood in the form of bubbles, it can block blood flow to the vessels and cause vessels to burst.
  • If the bubbles are arrested in the spinal cord or heart area, it can give rise to paralysis or heart attack, which can also result in death.
  • Caisson diseases can be controlled by recombination after slow decomposition.

Advantages of Caisson Disease:

  1. The pier of any length and size can be constructed at the site.
  2. The equipment used for construction is mobile hence construction can be done rapidly.
  3. The drilled pier is applicable to a wide variety of soils.
  4. Any change in the design criteria can be made during the progress of the job.
  5. Ground vibration is absent in the construction of a drilled pier, as it is associated with normally operated piles.
  6. The bearing capacity can be increased from under-reaming to bottom.
  7. Inspection of drilled holes is possible due to the large diameter of the shaft.

Disadvantages of Caisson Disease:

  1. The installation of a drilled pier requires efficient supervision and quality control.
  2. Adequate storage space is required for all equipment and materials used in construction.
  3. The construction of drilled piers is very difficult in heavy flow of groundwater flow due to artesian pressure.
Caisson Disease

Preventive measures:

  • Avoiding diving if person is obese, pregnant, having heart or lung problems, recent joint or limb injury.
  • Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption for 24 hours before diving avoids caisson disease.
  • Avoiding flying for 24 hours after deep-sea diving.
  • Avoiding repeated dives within a 12-hour interval.
  • Taking ibuprofen to prevent altitude sickness when hiking.




Caisson disease can describe a scenario arising from gases arising from solution into bubbles contained in the body on depressurization.



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