Types of Geological Formations of Groundwater

The groundwater of geological formations is the world’s largest freshwater source, accounting for about 30% of all freshwater on several types of planet.

There are holes in all the earth’s crust from soil to rocks.

Although these pores are completely filled with water below the bottom of the water, the only material through which water flows faster.

Rainwater seeps into the soil through rainwater and seeps down the slope until the water reaches the bottom, creating groundwater.

4 Different Types of Geological Formations of Groundwater:

Based on this, saturated products are classified into four groups:

  1. Aquifer
  2. Aquitard
  3. Aquiclude
  4. Aquifuge
Types of Geological Formations of Groundwater


An aquifer is a saturated reservoir of earth’s material which, due to its high permeability, not only retains water but also produces a sufficient quantity relatively quickly.

Good aquatic life is created by sand and gravel deposits.

Aquifers are classified into two types:

Unconfined Aquifer:

The unconfined aquifer has a surface of open water, which means that there is a water table for this type of aquatic life.

Also called a water-table aquifer, free aquifer, or phreatic aquifer.

The intrusion of rain from the surface of the land recharges an uncontrolled unconfined aquifer.

Confined Aquifer:

A confined aquifer is an geological formations that lives in two impenetrable beds, such as an aquifuge or an aquiclude.

The water in the restricted aquifer will be subjected to a pressure greater than the air pressure.

As a result, the water level indicated by the piezometer is always higher than the upper level of the restricted aquatic body.

Restricting aquifer recharging occurs when it is on the surface of the land.


Aquitards are also saturated formations that allow water to pass through it but does not produce as much water as aquatic animals can produce.

 This is because of their porous nature, However, if the aquifer is below the aquifer, water from the aquifer may leak into the aquifer.

Sandy clay is an excellent example of the aquitard. The clay particles in this case fill the holes in the sand, causing it to leak to some extent.


An aquiclude is a geological formations that is impervious to water movement.

 It holds a significant volume of water, yet it does not allow water to pass through it and does not produce water due to its high porosity.

Aquiclude is exemplified by clay.


An aquifuge is an impermeable geological structure that is neither porous nor permeable, which indicates it cannot hold water while still allowing water to pass through it.

Aquifuge is exemplified by compact rock.

Also read: Soil Classification | Difference Between M Sand and River sand | Canal Irrigation


The capacity of water to flow through a substance is measured by its permeability, that varies with porosity, which measures the amount of open space (pores) in a material.

The distinction between the aqui’s groundwater geological formations ( aquifers, aquitard, aquiclude, and aquifuge) as follows:

Aquifers – These geological formations that have both porosity and permeability.

Aquitard– These geological formations that have porosity but low permeability.

Aquicludes – These geological formations that have porosity but no permeability.

Aquifers – These geological formations that have neither pores nor permeability.

Hello, I'm Rahul Patil founder of Constructionor.com, I had studied B.E. Civil. This blog provides authentic information regarding civil structures, equipment, materials, tests & much more.

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