When masonry constructed with two or more different types of materials such as bricks, stones, glass block, cement concrete block or other is called composite masonry, this type of masonry wall is constructed for better appearance with economy.
In composite masonry walls, the two vythes of masonry units are constructed with each other.
The composite masonry is adopted for the following reasons:
- This reduces the overall cost of construction.
- This makes the structure more durable by providing better quality and good workmanship material in the faces.
- This improves the appearance of the structure by concealing the inferior function.
- It achieves optimum economy using locally available materials.
Types of Composite Masonry:
They can be further classified as follows:
Stone facing with brick backing:
In this type of composite masonry, a wall is constructed in brickwork and stones are provided on facing, to appear it constructed in stone.
It is adopted to improve the appearance of the structure at a lower cost.
The facing stones have been secured by providing a fine brick.
Brick facing with concrete backing:
In this type of construction, bricks are used as facing material and concrete as backing.
This type of construction is adopted to achieve the strength of concrete and the beauty of bricks.
The bricks are secured to the concrete backing by projecting alternative brick headers into the concrete.
Ashlar facing with brick backing:
This type of composite masonry are rough and chamfered stone is offered within the facing whereas the brickwork is offered within the backing.
It is better to use the height of the ashlar as a multiple of brick thickness plus masonry joints.
Alternate courses of ashlar may be headers under each prominent courses of ashlar, header bricks should be used.
Ashlar facing with rubble backing:
This type of composite masonry are rough tooled and chamfered stones are provided in facing whereas the backing consists of rubble masonry.
This could reduce the price of construction because the rubbles can be found at a less expensive price.
Brick Composite Masonry:
A mixture of bricks & stones in three forms can be used as a composite masonries.
Stone Composite Masonry:
When the wall facing and backing are constructed in stone.
Other types of brick masonry, hollow cement block masonry, and concrete block masonry are constructed, then it is called stone-alloyed masonry.
Stone Masonry is basic masonry, when made with any other masonry it becomes a composite masonry of stone.
This type of masonry is usually faced with brick masonry or hollow block masonry.
Glass Block Composite Masonry:
Nowadays, glass block are available in various shapes and sizes; these blocks are made from structural glass.
To make glass blocks, glass is impervious to oil, chemicals and moisture and its colour does not change with age.
Each horizontal joint must be reinforced with expanded metal strips galvanized in glass block masonry construction; if the height of the block is more than 300 mm.
Provision for expansion is made along jambs and the head of each panel then properly anchor the head, sill, and jams.
Advantages of composite masonry:
Light Weight: These masonry are light in weight, in comparison with other heavy materials.
High Strength: Some materials are very robust, therefore provides high strength.
Durable: Buildings made from composites masonry have a long life and need little maintenance.
Disadvantages of composite masonry:
High Cost: They are relatively new materials, and as such has a excessive cost.
Complex Fabrication: The fabrication process is normally labor-intensive and complicated, which additionally increase the cost.
Damage inspection: Delamination and cracks in composites are largely internal, therefore require complicated inspection methods for detection.
This composite masonry walls with two masonry units are constructed in relation to each other.
This type of masonry wall is constructed for a better appearance with the economy.