Types of Buildings in Civil Engineering - 1300 words

Types of Buildings


Types of buildings can be classified based on several criteria such as size, function, construction, style, design, etc.

However, the International Building Code (IBC 2018) and the Uniform Building Code (UBC) classify buildings based on occupancy and use.

The criteria from IBC and UBC are rational because they govern the design and construction of structures, each building type represents different levels of risk and adjacent properties.

Different Types of Buildings Structures:

The International Building Code classifies different types of building structures based on occupancy and use.

The major types of buildings are classified based on the living and use of the buildings used to determine subordinate buildings within a certain type of building.

A building is a structure surrounded by walls and ceilings in which people live, work, etc.

Buildings range in size, shape and function, have been adapted throughout history for many factors ranging from weather conditions to land prices, land conditions, building materials available for specific uses and aesthetic details.


Classification based on the purpose:

Residential Building:

These buildings include sleeping occupancy is provided for general residential purposes, without cooking or food and both facilities. They are further classified as follows:

A-1 lodging or rooming house.

A-2 One- or two-family private occupancy.

A-3 Hall.

A-4 Apartment House (Flat).

A-5 Hotel.

Educational Building:

These type of building are used for school, college or day-care purposes, including an assembly for education or recreation.


Institutional Building:

These building or part are used for purposes such as medical or other treatment or care for the persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease or debility.

For the care and sentence or correction of children or older persons in which the freedom of prisoners is restricted.

Institutional buildings usually provide sleeping space for the occupants.

The institutional type of building are further classified as

C-1 Hospital & Hospital

C-2 Custodial Institute

C-3 Penal and Mental Institute

Assembly Building:

These building or part of a building where groups of people gather or assemble for entertainment, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civic, travel and similar purposes.

For example theatre, assembly hall, exhibition hall, museum, skating rink, gymnasium, restaurant, place of worship, dance hall, club room, passenger station, public transport services, entertaining docks and stadiums, etc.

Assembly type buildings are further divided according to the following:

D-1 buildings are a theatrical stage and fixed seats for more than 1000 persons.

The D-2 building has a theatrical stage and fixed seats for less than 1000 persons.

D-3 buildings without a single phase without lodging for 300 or more persons but no permanent seating arrangement

The un-staged D-4 building provides lodging for less than 300 people.

All other structures designed for the assembly of people not covered in subdivisions D-1 to D-4 are D5. Also, read Types of Buildings Conclusion.

Business Buildings:

These building or part of a building used for the transaction of business.

The City Hall, Town Hall, Courtyard and Library will be classified in this group.

The accounts and records and similar purposes, professional establishments, service facilities etc. are the main function is public business and transactions.

Business type buildings are further classified as

E-1 offices, banks, professional establishments, such as offices of architects, engineers, doctors, lawyers, etc.

E-2 Laboratories, Research Establishments and Testing Houses.

E-3 Computer Installation.

Mercantile Buildings:

These building or part of a building, which is used for display and sale of goods, either wholesale or retail, as shops, shops, markets.

The building type of the building is further classified as

F-1 shops, stores, markets with an area up to 500 meters. ‘

F-2 Underground Shopping Center, Contingency Services for more than 500 area departmental stores and storage

Sale of goods and located in the same building will be included under this group. Also, read Types of Buildings FAQ.

Industrial Building:

These building or structure shall include any part or portion for materials of all types and properties are fabricated, assembled, manufactured or processed.

For example assembly plants, laboratories, dry cleaning plants, power plants, pumping Station, Smokehouse, Laundry, Gas Plant, Refinery: Dairies and sawmills.

Industrial type buildings are further classified as

G-1 buildings are used for less hazardous industries

G-2 buildings are used for medium-risk industries

G-3 buildings are used for high-risk industries.

Storage Building:

These building, primarily used for the storage or shelter including goods incidental to servicing, processing or repair, excluding goods include highly combustible or explosive products or materials, vehicles or animals.

 For example, warehouses, ‘cold storage, freight depots, transit sheds, storehouses, trucks, and marine tar Minerals, garages, hangars (other than aircraft repair hangars), grain elevators, barns and stables.

Storage properties are characterized by the presence of a relatively small number of people in proportion to the area.

Any new users who increase the number of figures compared to other classes of occupancy will change the grouping of the building.

For example sheds used for assembly purposes, warehouses used for office purposes or manufacturing, Garage Building.

Dangerous Buildings:

These building or part of a building that is used for the storage, handling, manufacture, or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials or products, which can produce extreme toughness and that produce toxic fumes or explosions.

For storage, handling, manufacture or processing that contains highly corrosive, toxic or toxic alkalis, acids or other liquids or chemicals that produce flame, fumes and explosives, toxic, irritant or corrosive gases and for storage, handling or processing.

 As a result of any material forming an explosive mixture of dust, splitting of matter results in spontaneous ignition of particulate matter. Also, read Types of Buildings FAQ.

Classification based on design and height:

Demolished building:

A building consisting of roof and walls which are separated from any other building and has open space within its boundaries is called a separate building.

Semi- circular buildings:

These are buildings that are different from any other building on three sides and have open spaces. (Open space is defined as integral parts of the site that are open to the sky.)

Multi-story or high rise buildings:

These buildings are more than 4 stories and elevations greater than 15 meters (without stilts) or 17.5 meters (with stilts) above the average level of the front road are classified as tall buildings.

Classification based on the standard of safety:

Slum Buildings:

Buildings under this type have a low level of maintenance and poor living conditions due to insufficient sanitation, ventilation and other harmful factors.

Slums are marked by a competent authority as per the respective law.

Unsafe building:

Buildings that are structurally weak and thus unsafe, uneven or polluted, do not have proper entry and exit facilities, disposed to fire hazards, a threat to human life and might pose a threat to safety, health or danger.

Public welfare is considered unsafe.

As per Government regulations, these buildings should take renovation, demolition or necessary measures as per the instructions of the concerned authority.

Classification based on other Diverse Features:

Special building:

It is a global category comprising assembly buildings, industrial buildings, bulk installations, hazardous buildings, hotels, hostels and centrally chilled buildings that are more than 15 meters in height and have a built-up area of over 600 square meters.

Multi-level car parking:

These buildings are either below ground level with two or more basements or above ground level with two or more floors, mainly used for parking cars, bikes, scooters and other light motorized vehicles.

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Also, read 1. Types of Cement 2. Concrete Block Types 3. Types of Foundation

Types of Buildings FAQ:

What are the 5 types of building construction?

1.Fire Resistive.
4.Heavy Timber
5.Wood Frame

What are 3 types of structures?

There are three basic types of structures: shell structures, frame structures, and concrete structures.

What type of building is a hotel?

Residential Buildings

What are the different types of houses?

1.Single Family Detached House.
5.Carriage/Coach House.
7.Cave House.


The quality of all types of buildings depends on the class of construction, the security status of the building; components used in the system (such as sensors and video surveillance) and financial resources allocated for its design, implementation and maintenance.

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