Components of Building Structure (11 Basic Parts)

Components of Building


The basic components of a building structure are foundations, floors, walls, beams, columns, roofs, staircase, etc.

These elements serve the purpose of supporting, enclosing and protecting the building structure.

List of building components:


The part of the structure above ground and below ground level is called plinth.

The height of the plinth should be between 06 m to 0.8 m.

Functions of Plinth:

It provides protection from rainwater and creeping animals and insects.

It also provides space for courses that ultimately support flooring tiles.


It is a horizontal surface for every room occupants to use.


The floor for the ground floor is usually above the plinth while a floor slab serves as a floor for the upper floor.

The floor is then covered by a variety of floor materials such as mosaic tile, granite, marble, quota, etc.

Functions of Floor:

In general, the floor should provide good resistance to wear and tear caused by its daily use.

It should be easy to wash and clean, fire-resistant, easy to repair.

The various types of floors commonly used for ground floor in India are murum or clay floors or brick floors or tiled floors or timber floors, etc.

Wall as Building Components:

These are vertical building components that can support the roof or act as a partition wall or compound wall.

Various forms of masonry have walls such as brick masonry, stone masonry, and composite masonry, hollow cement concrete block masonry, cement concrete block masonry, etc.


Functions of Wall:

 The walls form the outer boundary of the building and separate the rooms from each other.

It supports roofs in load-bearing structures.

It only serves as the partition walls in the framed structure, because the partition walls do not carry any weight of the structure.


 It is the vertical member or component of a framed structure.

It is made of reinforced cement concrete.

Functions of the column:

It supports flooring at various levels in a framed structure or RCC, it takes a brief weight of the structure.

 In a load-bearing structure, the column is called a column that is made of bricks or stones.

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It is the horizontal components of the building structure. It is made of steel, reinforced cement concrete, wood, etc.

Functions of beam:

It supports the transverse load of the building structure.

It carries the tensile weight of a structure.


A roof is building components, cover at the top of a building designed to protect it from elements such as rain, sun, and wind.

It is designed and constructed to meet the requirements of different climates and available materials.

For example, in the plains where rainfall is scanty and intense heat, a thick flat roof is more suitable, whereas, in Ghats or Coastal areas where rainfall is heavy, a sloping or sloping roof is suitable.

The main divisions of the roof are pitch or a sloping roof, hat roof and shells and domes.

Doors and windows:

Doors: These are openings that allow entry into the building and circulation through various rooms.

Windows: These are usually built into the outer wall providing air and light inside the rooms.

Functions of Doors:

The doors are used for the free movement of people inside and outside the house.

They should be minimal for each room because more doors cause cause-obstruction.

Exterior doors are a means of separating the home from the surroundings in terms of privacy and security.

The door should be located near the end of the room, especially in residential buildings.

Any door has two parts;

Strictly fixed with the frame, a holdfast in walls.

Hanging shutter fixed to frame with hinges on one side.

Generally, the door for a normal residential house is 900 x 2100 minutes for the interior door.

The size may be more for the exterior main door and less for the bathroom and water cupboard.

For other types of buildings, the door sizes are fixed according to the requirement.

The teak wood frame with blackboard shutter is the common type of door used these days, although a lightweight steel frame with blackboard shutter is also used in modern apartments.

Fiber plastic doors are becoming popular for bathrooms and water cupboards.

Functions of Windows:

Windows are building components provided for entry of light into the building for the free circulation of air.

The outer wall should have a maximum number of windows.

As a rule, the minimum area of the window or windows will be one-tenth of the floor area of the room.

For schools, factories and hospitals, the window area should be at least one-fifth of the floor area.

Windows are usually fixed such that the top of the window is 2100 mm below the floor level.

Vertical windows accept more light than horizontal windows of the same area.

Like a door, any window has two parts;

(i) Strictly fixed frame in walls with frame fasts.

(ii) Hanging shutter fixed to frame with hinges on one side.

Mild steel frames and shutter windows fixed with glazed glass are very common these days.

Aluminium sliding windows, which operate on the tracks, and frames and shutters fixed in a single plane are also very popular in urban areas.


The lintel is a small horizontal building components acts as a beam and always provided over openings such as door, window or any other.

It is made of R.C.C. timber or stone slabs pre-cast concrete.

Nowadays commonly made in R.C.C. in framed structure.

Functions of lintel:

It supports part of the wall at the opening.

Sill as Building Components:

The lower structure of a window or door opening is called a sill.

The sills are modern building components are constructed in stone slabs such as Kota, Kadapa or ceramic tiles.

The portion of the cob is sometimes well kept flat.

Functions of Sill:

This provides a suitable finish for the window opening.

It also provides protection to the wall below the window.

It also supports the vertical members of the opening and it drains rainwater from the face of the wall immediately after the opening.


It is a tilt passage with steps and is connected to the floor at various levels.

It is composed of R.C.C., steel or wood.

 Nowadays, it is usually made in reinforced cement concrete in a framed structure.

Functions of the Staircase:

It provides easy access from one floor to another.


It is part of a low height wall built along the edge of the roof or a low height wall built along the edge of the roof.

It is built in brick masonry and well plaster.

Also, read 1. Moment Frame 2. Wall Cladding 3. Gabion Wall

Building Components FAQ:

What are structural components of a house?

Structural components means footings, foundations, all parts of exterior wall , structural steel, roof joists and decks, beams, columns, roof decks , load-bearing floor and sub-floors of building.

What is non structural elements?

Non-structural elements include mechanical and electrical plants, ducting, pipework, cable trays, suspended ceilings, lightweight non-load-bearing partitions and cladding systems such as brick veneers.

Is a window a structural component?

No, Structural components of a building include vertical studs, top and bottom plates, and window and door walls and headers.

What are 3 types of structures?

There are three basic types of structures: shell structures, frame structures, and concrete structures.

Conclusion for Components of Building:

The basic components of a building superstructure are columns, beams, slabs, and walls & basic components of building substructure are the foundation and plinth beam.

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