There are various types of windows used in the construction of houses, buildings, offices, etc.
A window is defined as vented barrier secured in a wall opening to serve one or more of the functions, i.e., natural light, natural ventilation and vision.
The windows provide spaces with natural light, also gives more information to the outside world, time, weather, surroundings, etc.
Function of windows:
- To admit natural light in the building.
- To admit air in the building.
- Also, to give a view of the outside.
- The window provides insulation against heat loss and sound.
- Some windows are also gives resistance to fire.
Different types of windows in civil engineering:
This type of window has a structure of vertical member called style and horizontal members are called rails that are grounded along the inner edges of the frame from which panels are obtained.
The panels are made of wood, plywood, block boards and glasses, such windows may be fully paneled, partially paneled, partially glazed or fully glazed.
Glazed windows are usually provided where additional light is required to enter the room through the windows or where visibility of the interior of the room from the adjacent room is required.
Fixed Windows TYPES:
These windows are offered for the purpose of admitting light and offering vision within the room.
The window consists of a window frame to which shutters are fastened, no rebates are provided to the frame, the shutters are totally glazed.
These are common-types of windows usually provided in buildings, the construction of the casement window is similar like door.
The window has a frame which is rebated to receive the shutters, it consists of styles, top rails, backside rails and intermediate rails, thus dividing it into panels.
The panels might both be glazed or unglazed, partly glazed and partly unglazed.
It should be noted than the side-hinged opening part of window consisting of glass planes or panels known as easement and windows made of these parts are called casement windows.
Double bung window:
The pair of shutters are arranged on top of each other which can slide vertically within the provided grooves.
A pair of metal weights is provided for each shutter attached to a cord or chain above a shutter, this windows can be used to control ventilation.
In this type of window, shutters run on roller bearings and can slide horizontally or vertically.
These windows are provided in trains, buses, ships and bank counters.
Pivoted windows types:
The shutter is pivoted to a window frame which rotates vertically or horizontally.
These windows are provided for ventilation, they do not allow any external vision, the shutter consists of a top and bottom rail which are embossed to receive the lowers.
Lowers for runway rainwater are usually fixed on a 45 ° slope downward on the outer side.
Occasionally venetian shutters are provided in which the louvre can be opened or closed known as the venetian blind.
This type of windows are provided in WC and bathrooms.
Metal windows made of mild steel are popular in private and public buildings due to their high durability, strength, lower cost and better looking.
However, windows fabricated from different metals such as aluminium, bronze, stainless steel, etc., are also used for buildings where an excessive degree of magnificence finishing is required.
Aluminum windows are also becoming popular for domestic building as they are corrosion resistant, durable, require less maintenance and painting.
In modern practice, steel windows are used extensively because they are the cheapest.
Mild steel sections used to manufacture metal windows are manufactured in a wide range of standard sizes.
The commonly used sections are angle section, Z section, T section and channel section, the metal frame can be fixed directly to the wall or it can be fixed to a wooden frame.
Bay windows types:
This type of window is to be provided for obtaining light and ventilation from two adjoining sides, these windows project outside of external walls of a room.
The window provided in the corner of a room, holds two faces in two vertical directions.
Due to this, light and air are recruited from two directions.
The vertical window provided on the sloping roof for the airflow and lighting to the enclosed house under the roof.
The vertical window provided within the gable finish pitched roof.
Skylight windows types:
These window is usually placed on a sloping roof to get light inside the house, they are projected above the top sloping surface and run parallel to the sloping surface.
In such a window, the common rafters are trimmed and the skylight is mounted on a curb frame, the area around this window is waterproofed by lead flashing.
This type of window has a circular shape, it is either fixed in the wall or pivoted on the central axis, it can be opened and closed with the help of two wires.
Circular windows are commonly used in elevated ceilings, factories, barracks, bungalows, roof ceilings for light as well as air penetration.
The circular pivot windows are fully reversible which makes it easier to clean from inside when it is in a completely reversed position.
Mosquito proof window:
In this type of window, a wire gauge or wire net is fixed to the exterior of the window and the main shutter of the window is opened inside.
The main shutters of the window are fixed with the help of parliamentary hinges.
The shutter opening is against the wall therefore there is no obstruction due to the parliamentary hinges.
Since these windows are fixed with wire-gauze or wire mesh, they are also called wire-mesh windows.
Curtain wall window:
It is modern and advanced window in which the curtain wall hasouter covering of a constructing in which the outside walls are non-structural, however only preserve out the climate.
Hence a non-load bearing exterior wall is called as curtain wall and the window provided with different materials in the curtain wall is known as curtain wall window.
Depending upon the field installation methods, the curtain wall windows are classified as
- Stick system: Window walls are installed piece by piece.
- Mullion and panel system: Curtain window wall in which vertical members called as mullions are first erected, then wall units usually incorporating unglazed windows.
- Panel systems: It consists of horizontal and vertical members.