There are several parts of a door which has basic needs for entering and exiting a building or occupied space.
The most common parts in a door are door hinges, a door-knob assembly, the door panel and door frame on which the door hangs.
A door is a movable barrier generally known as a doorway through a building wall or partition for the purpose of offering access to the inside of a building or building room.
Doors are placed in a position by the door frame, whose members are located over and above the opening or doorway.
Different parts of a door:
The door frame consists of an assembly of horizontal and vertical members fastened with topsides and the lower part of an opening in the form of an enclosure in which the shutters are fixed.
Door frames are made of the following materials:
- Timer frames: Amongst all, wooden frames are usually used whereas steel frames are widely used in factories, workshops, etc.
- Aluminum frames: Aluminum frames are expensive used for residential buildings where more funding is available.
- Concrete frames: They are now becoming popular in urban areas whereas concrete frames have half the cost of a teakwood frame.
- Stone frames: They are mostly used in villages.
These are open able parts of a door, it is an assembly of styles, panels and rails.
The uppermost horizontal part of the frame is known as head.
These are the horizontal projections of the head and bottom to facilitate the fixing of the frame on the wall openings, while the length of horns is kept about 10 to 15 cm.
It is the vertical outside member of the shutter of a door.
The topmost horizontal member of a door shutter.
The centre horizontal member of the shutter.
The lower enclosed between the adjoining rails.
These are mild steel flats, usually bent into Z-shape to carry the frame to the opening, the horizontal size of holdfast is kept about 20 cm, section 30 mm x 6 mm, and it is embedded in masonry.
10.Post or Door Jamb:
Vertical member of frame one on each side is called post or jamb.
Fixtures and Fastenings for parts of a doors:
Various types of hinge as follows:
A) Back flap hinge:
These back flap hinges are used where the shutters are thin and fixed on the back side of the shutter and frame.
B) Butt hinge:
This butt hinges are commonly used for doors and windows made of cast iron, malleable iron or steel.
They are screwed to the edges of doors or windows to the relaxation of the frame.
C) Garnet hinge:
A garnet hinge is a wrought strap that is fastened to a metal piece plate also known as a shutter because it has a long arm that is screwed on the shutter and a small plate is mounted on the frame.
These hinges are used on plank shutter doors and closed doors and locked doors etc.
D) Parliamentary hinge:
This parliamentary hinge is a special hinge used to hang doors.
These hinges are used when the opening is narrow and essential to maintain the opening free from obstruction because of the door being closed.
E) Strap hinge:
This strap hinge is sometimes used instead of a T-hinge for ledged and braced doors for heavy use such as garages, gates, etc.
F) Nar-Madi hinge:
Nar-madi hinge is used for heavy doors, pins mounted on frames or walls.
The strap on which the shutter of the door or window is fixed is round with a pin.
G) Rising butt binge:
These rising butt hinges are provided with helical nickel joints in which the shutter is extended 10 mm on opening.
H) Pin hinge:
Pin hinge is usually used to close heavy doorways.
The middle pin of the hinge can be eliminated and the two leaves of the hinge might be fastened separately to the frame and shutter.
Various types of bolt as follows:
A) Aldrop bolt:
This aldrop bolt is fixed on the external door where a padlock is used.
B) Barrel bolt:
Barrel bolt is used to fix the back face of the outer door.
The socket is fixed to the door frame, while the plate is screwed to the inside of the shutter.
C) Flush bolt:
This flush bolt is used where the projecting tower bolt will be objectionable and when it is dashed to keep the bolt flush with the face of the door.
D)Hasp and staple bolt:
This hasp and staple bolt is used for exterior doors where the padlock is to be used, the staples are fixed to the door frame, while the shutter is fixed.
Latch is used to secure the door usually made of malleable iron or bronze.
It consists of a lever mounted at one end, which can be controlled by a trigger passing the shutter and the lever is secured in hasp and staple.
4. Hook and eye:
Hook and eye is used for keeping window shutter in position when window is open.
Handles are used to pull and push the doors and windows.
The pad lock are used to secure the door in temporary and common tasks.
7.Door or window Sill:
A horizontal member of brick, stone, concrete or wood is provided to offer support for the vertical members of the window.
For proper functioning of the window sills:
- A proper and appropriate finish should be given to the top surface of the window sill.
- To avoid the ingress of moisture inside the structure, a damp proofing course should be provided under the windows.
- The projection of window sills on the external wall should not be less than 50 mm and it should be suitably throated to throw off the water outside.
Also read: Types of Doors, Components of Building & Types of Windows
The doors should be located in front walls to ensure good ventilation and free air circulation in the room.
In concern of the utility and privacy of the room, the door should be located close to the corner of the room about 20 cm from the corner.
The location and size of the door should meet the functional requirements of the room.