There are various types of doors are used in construction industry.
A door may be defined as an open able barrier or as a framework of wooden, metal, aluminum or combination of those materials secured it a wall opening.
Functions of doorways:
- It provides entry to the inside of a room of a building.
- It serves as a connecting hyperlink between the various inner parts of the building.
- Also, provides lightning and airflow of rooms.
- To keep up the privatives of rooms.
Different types of doors used in construction:
Paneled door consists of a frame in which the panels either flat or raised.
These doors consists of styles and rails which are grooved along the inner edges of the frame to receive the panels made from timber, plywood, block board, glass etc.
The vertical members called styles are continuous front, top to bottom rails are joined to styles at both ends, while mullions or mutinies, if provided are jointed to the rails between which it is fixed.
The minimum width of stiles should not be less than 10 cm and for top and bottom should not less than 15 cm.
The thickness of the shutter frame is usually 4 to 5 cm, but the actual thickness depends upon several factors, i.e. door size, location of the door, type of work, thickness of panels and size of the moldings.
When doors are classified based on the arrangement of components, they fall into the category of battened doors.
Types of battened doors:
A) Battened and lodged doors:
The battened and lodged doors is the simplest form of door commonly used for narrow openings.
This door consists of vertical boards known as battens often tongued, grooved, and mounted together by horizontal helps known as ledges.
There are three ledges fixed near the top, bottom and in the middle of shutter.
B) Battened ledged and braced doors:
The battened ledged and braced door is an improved form of a battened and ledged door to increase the rigidity of the door, the additional inclined members called braces are provided.
These types of doors can be used for wider opening in a situation where appearance is not important.
C) Battened ledged and framed doors:
In battened ledged and framed doors, the framework is provided to have better strength and appearance.
This door consists of two vertical styles, they are generally 10 cm wide and 4 cm thick.
D) Battened ledged, braced and framed doors:
This battened ledged, braced and framed doors are modification door over battened ledged and framed door.
In order, to increase strength, durability and appearance additional braces are provided diagonally between ledges.
These types of doors are suitable for external use and rough handling.
The flush doors are made from plywood and block board, it has good characteristics like pleasing appearance, simplicity of construction, high strength, durable and economical,
These doors are commonly used for residential as well as public buildings consists of:
- A skeleton or a hollow framework of rails and stiles, the door is covered on both sides with laminated board or plywood.
- The thickness of flush doors varies from 25 mm to 40 mm depending upon the type of flush door.
Types of the flush doors:
- Solid core flush doors.
- Hollow and cellular core flush door or framed plush door.
- Cellular core flush door.
Collapsible doors are typically used in situations where the width of the opening is large and availability of hinged shutter becomes difficult for space.
These doors are extensively used for the main entrance of residential buildings, shops, garage, public buildings, go downs, etc.
They are fabricated from rolled steel channels provided with rollers at the bottom, to roll on rails when they open or close to increased safety and protection of property.
The door consists of vertical double channels each 20 x 10 x 2 ram in size and spaced at 10 to 12 cm apart, joined to one another by cross iron pieces.
The cross iron pieces are usually 10 mm to 15 mm wide and 5 mm thick depending upon the size of the opening, the door may have single or double shatters.
The door is provided with locking arrangements, handles stoppers, etc. can be opened or closed by slight pull or push.
5.Rolling steel shutters door:
A rolling steel door consists of a frame, drum, and shutter of thin steel plates or iron sheets of thickness about 1 mm commonly used for the main entrances of the shops, garages show-rooms and go down, etc.
The door shutter acts like a steel curtain provides adequate protection and safety against burglars and fire.
The door shutter travels in vertical steel guide channels installed at either end of the opening.
Revolving doors provide entrance on one side and exit on the opposite side simultaneously.
These types of doors are provided where their people regularly enter in and going out of the building especially in the case of banks, hotels, hospitals, theatres, offices etc.
These door essentially consists of four leaves radially attached to a centrally placed mullion in circular opening, assembled to exclude the wind draught.
When desired light to be admitted inside the door, glazed doors being used.
These doors may be either fully glazed, partly glazed, or partly paneled, in which sufficient light is required to be admitted through doors in case of lobbies, halls, staircase, shopping, or display centers, fully glazed doors are provided.
In case of partly glazed and partly paneled doors, the usual proportion of glazed portion to paneled portion is kept 2:1.
In glazed doors, usually, 5 to 8 mm thick polished plate glass is used e.g. reinforced with wire mesh or toughened are being used to avoid shuttering.
The glasses are fixed in the rebates of sash bar which are secured with putty or by wooden beads fixed to the frame.
These doors are used in residential and public buildings like hospitals, schools, or colleges with a view to adding natural lighting to make the interior room visible from the adjoining one.
Plastic doors are light in weight, waterproof and anti-corrosive which are more popular at a place of bathrooms and toilets due to its waterproof property.
These doors are available in various colors, while its durability depends on the thickness of the door.
9.Louvered doors TYPES:
Doors containing louvers or slots for the purpose of ventilation are called louvered or Venetian doors, these doors admit a free passage of air and light securing at the same time privacy and safety.
In these types of doors, shutters are provided with louvers either fully or partly, louvers are arranged at such an inclination that horizontal vision is obstructed.
The spaces haw the rails are filled by a series of wooden leaves over-lying each other that the upper edge of louvers are fixed into the stiles or made movable, the usual inclination in case of fixed louvers is 45°.
In these doors, the louvers are arranged at a certain inclination, so that the outside vision are obstructed and allows the free passage of air.
There are two types of louvers fixed or movable louvers made in timber, plywood, plastic molded piece material, or glass.
Swing doors have a shutter that moves both inward and outward, as it required a double action spring hinge fixed to the door frame is termed a swing door.
In short, these doors swings about double action spring hinge, it has a single leaf or shutter attached to the door frame especially with the help of double action spring hinge.
In some cases, two leaves can also be attached to the door frame by means of double action spring hinge.
The door opens inward or outward with the action of spring force hence to avoid an accident, the door should be fully glazed or a small peephole should be provided at the eye level.
These types of doors is mostly used in officer’s cabin, commercial complexes, showrooms, etc.
Also read: Parts of a door, Components of Building & Parts of stairs
11.Sliding door types:
At the time, the door shutter opens requires space to open, in some cases when space is not available to open the shutter then sliding doors are more preferred.
Sliding in such doors requires very little space to open the shutter, while these doors have runners, guide rails, shutters, frames, channel tracks, and brackets.
The door shutter slides on the sides with the help of guide rails and runners at the bottom of the shutter, channel tracking is provided to slide the shutter properly.
A folding door is a type of door that opens by folding back in part, also known as the accordion door or the accordion partition.
Folding doors are designed to supply quick and easy space partitions with average reduction and a delightful visual appearance.
Folding doors provide quick sight and sound splitting with an easy put and latch operation, these doors are available for single and pair openings.
Nowadays bi-folding doors are one of the most innovative developments that are the best choice for a closet but can also be used for other areas of the house.
Also read: Types of Structures, Types of Windows & Types of Buildings