There are many types of stairs based on their shape and arrangement, stair are structure having a series of steps and riser, the means for ascent and descent between the floors or landings.
The enclosed room wherein stair is situated is called the staircase and the opening space occupied by the stair is called a stairway.
A stair consists of treads, risers, stringers, balusters and many different linked elements.
Stair may be made from timber, stone, bricks, steel, plain cement concrete or reinforced cement concrete.
Different types of stairs based on geometry:
This stair runs directly between two floors.
These may include a single flight or more than one flight with a landing, it is used for smaller homes.
Turning stairs has an opening or well hole between the front and back flights and determined according to geometric principles.
The change of directions is radiated from the center of curvature between the flights by winders.
Turning stairs can be circular, spiral, helical or elliptical, these stairs require a good care and skill in their construction.
They are further may be classified as:
Quarter turn stairs types:
When the flight direction is to be changed by 90°, quarter-turn stairs are provided to change its direction to the left or right.
This can be achieved by starting a quarter space landing or providing a winder.
Quarter turn stairs are classified as follows:
Newel quarter turn stairs:
These stairs have new posts at the beginning and end of each flight.
Quarter-turns can be either space landings, winders.
Geometrical quarter turns stairs:
In this stairs, stinger and railing is continuous, there are no new positions on the landing.
Half Fold Stairs types:
These ladders change their direction through 180°, these may classified as follows:
It consists of two straight flights with an abrupt turn between them, the flights run in the opposite direction with no space between them.
These may be classified as follows:
- With half-space landing and
- With quarter space landing and winders.
Dog-legged stairs with quarter space landing and winders are most common.
Open new half-turn stairs:
The open new half-turn stairway has a space or well between the outer wires.
This is the only major difference between the open newel half-turn ladder and the dog leg steer.
Geometric half-fold Stairs:
In this type of stairs, stringer and band rails are continuous without new posts without interference.
They can occur with or without a half-position landing.
Three quarter turn stairs types:
This type of stairs is used when the size of the staircase room is restricted and when the vertical distance between the two floorings is massive sufficient.
These stairs may be either open type or new type.
These stairs have changed their direction three times along their upper flight.
This type of ladder is very common in public buildings in which it appears as a prominent feature.
In this type of stairs, the flights are so organized that there is a wide flight on the wall which is subdivided into narrow flights at mid-landing.
Two narrow flights begin in the entrance on both aspects of the centre landing.
Circular stairs types:
These stairs, when viewed from top, appear to follow a circle with a center of curvature and a large radius.
Circular stairs are usually constructed in R.C.C. Cast iron or stone.
These stairs are similar to circular stairs besides that the radius of curvature is small and the tray of the staircase is supported by a middle part.
Spiral stair could be constructed from cast iron, mild steel or concrete.
Different types of stairs based on materials:
They are often employed in framed structures or R.C.C. Structure.
This stairs has better resistance to wear and fire than any other material, it can be molded to any desired shape and size.
Steps and landing can be provided by various finishing materials such as marble, quota, granite, ceramic tiles, terrazzo etc.
These stairs are strong, rigid, durable and pleasing.
They can easily kept clean and easily withstand even non-slippery.
These stairs are suitable for greater width and longer duration.
R.C.C. stairs are constructed mostly in cast-in-situ and prefabricated structure, they are precast.
Timber or wooded stairs types:
Timber stairs are commonly used for residential buildings due to its lightness made either built-in or shop fabricated.
They are mainly used for stair construction where fire resistance is not of much importance.
The wood used for construction should be free from fungal decay and insect attack, they should be treated well before use.
Stringers are employed to provide support for the steps, the stringers are bent wooden members 3 to 5 cm thick and 25 to 40 cm deep.
Mild steel and cast iron stairs used in factories, warehouses, workshops, etc.
They are not common in residential and public buildings, although they are strong and rough resistant because they are not good looking and make a lot of noise when used by users.
The simplest type consists of steel channels acting as stringers, the thread consists of steel checker plate or concrete slab.
These are supported by small angles on the stringers, concrete can be used for threads filled with steel troughs or steel grating.
Spiral staircases are other form of metal stairs that are commonly used in factories, warehouses, workshops, etc.
Precast concrete stairs types:
These concrete units are nowadays available for constructing concrete stairs of various shapes.
Stairs are the arrangement of steps that will allow a person to move from lower to a higher floor or higher to lower floor.