Concrete Spalling

Concrete spalling

Concrete spalling is the breaking of the concrete surface that usually extends to the highest layers of reinforcing steel. Spalls might be 150 mm or more in diameter and 25 mm or more in depth and the …

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Grouting

Grouting

Grouting is the process for ground improvement that is achieved by injecting a fluid-like material into subsurface soil or rock. Grouting is the specifically prepared cement under pressure to form a stable suspension or liquid into pores, …

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Contour Interval

contour interval

A contour interval is a vertical distance or a difference in elevation between two contour lines in a topographic map. Usually, there are totally different contour intervals for various maps. For the plotting of region, the contour …

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Chain Surveying

Chain surveying

Chain surveying is the simplest method of detail survey in which only linear measurements are taken in the field. In this method, the length of the lines marked on the field is measured, while the details from …

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